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基于DSP和ARM的音频处理系统设计
aiwangxin | 2007-12-04 18:12:56    阅读:91382   发布文章
随着DSP 计算机技术、电子技术和通信技术的迅猛发展,音频处理技术也在众多领域得到广泛应用。如通信领域DSP 中的手机、IP电话,消费类电子产品中的MP3和CD播放器以及控制领域中的语音识别、声控系统等。针对DSP强大的数字信号处理DSP 能力和ARM处理器良好的实时性能,结合音频编解码芯片TLV320AIC23的接口特点,本文阐述了由三DSP 者组成的音频处理系统的硬件接口设计和软件编程,提供了有效和实用的音频处理系统方案。

  TLV320AIC23(简称AIC23)是TI公司的一款高性能DSP 立体声音频编解码器Codec芯片。其内部集成的模数转换器(ADCs)和数模转换器(DACs)采用了带有过采样数字插补滤波DSP 的多位Sigma-Delta技术。数据传输字长为16、20、24、32位,支持采样频率范围8kHz至96kHz。ADC和DAC的信噪比DSP 分别达到90dB和100dB。内置耳机输出放大器,支持MIC和LINE IN两种输入方式,且对输入和输出DSP 都具有可编程增益调节。另外,AIC23功耗低,回放模式下功率仅为23mW,省电模式下更是小于15uW。因此,AIC23成为数字音频应用
领域中DSP 的理想选择,在多种数码产品中发挥着重要作用,比较典型的应用如手机、MP3、DV摄像机中的音频编解码。

  TMS320VC5402(简称VC5402)是TI公司的一款优秀16位定点DSP,运算速度快,指令执行速度达到100MIPS。自带片内存储器和多种片上外设,广泛应用于DSP 语音编解码和通信领域。

  S3C4510B(简称4510B)是Samsung公司的一款低成本、高性能的16/32位精简指令集微控制器,其出色的ARM7TDMI内核以及通用微处理器宏单元使其成为用户定制应用DSP 开发的理想选择。

2 系统硬件设计

  本音频处理系统DSP 主要由前述三个处理芯片组成:ARM控制单元,DSP信号处理单元以及AIC23音频采集单元。系统原理框图如图1。




  图1 基于DSPARM音频处理系统原理框图

  AIC23是可编程芯片,内部有11个16位寄存器,编程DSP 设置这些寄存器可得到所需的采样频率、输入输出增益和传输数据格式等。该控制接口有SPI和I2C两种工作模式,由芯片上的MODE引脚进行选择:MODE=0为I2C模式,MODE=1为SPI模式。因ARM 4510B上也有I2C接口,故选用I2C模式。AIC23的I2C接口地址由 引脚的状态决定, =0时地址为0011010, =1时地址为0011011。其中SDIN与SDA为数据线,SCLK与SCL为串行时钟线。VC5402有两个多通道缓冲串口,选用其中的McBSP0与AIC23进行通信,信号连接如图1所示。图中AIC23工作在主模式,时钟信号、DAC和ADC的帧同步信号BFSX0和BFSR0都由AIC23提供。而DSP VC5402与ARM 4510B的通讯是通过DSP上的HPI接口实现的。

3 系统软件设计

  系统由ARM系统和DSP系统两大部分组成,ARM作为主控制器管理整个系统的工作进程,运行相关的应用程序,可对多个任务进行调度,完成与外部DSP系统或其他外设的通信。DSP则主要完成音频数据的采集和信号处理,并将处理后的数据发送给ARM供应用DSP 程序调用。这样的设计可以大大提高系统的工作效率,这也是当前嵌入式系统,各移动手持设备如PDA、手机等的典型设计方案。

  这里DSP 具体要做的是对AIC23的控制接口编程,使其工作在所需的模式下。然后初始化DSP的McBSP,进行AD、DA转换和数据处理。

3.1 ARM编程部分

  系统中对ARM的编程DSP 主要涉及对AIC23的初始化,使其进入正常工作状态,对音频数据进行采集和处理。这需要设置4510B的I2C总线特殊功能寄存器:控制状态寄存器IICCON、预分频寄存器IICPS和移位缓冲寄存器IICBUF,寄存器相关DSP 说明见表1。

  表1 4510B I2C总线特殊功能寄存器


  AIC23的11个控制寄存器相关设置的详细描述参见文献2。这里DSP 的设置为:左右声道线路输入静音;耳机左右声道音量为6dB;使能DAC,麦克风音量为20dB作为ADC输入;使能ADC高通滤波;芯片各部分电路供电使能;芯片工作在主模式,采样DSP 数据长度16位,采用DSP数据格式(同步帧后跟随两个数据字);采样率88.2KHz(外部晶振为11.2896MHz);使能数字接口。

对AIC23编程时的I2C总线时序DSP 如图2所示。设置好I2C的时钟频率后,首先发送开始条件(SCLK为高电平时,SDI从高电平向低电平切换),然后发送AIC23的器件地址,器件DSP 地址发出后发送AIC23相应寄存器的地址,再发送对该寄存器设置的数据,最后发送停止条件(SCLK为高电平时,SDI从低电平向高电平切换)。注意,这里DSP 的寄存器地址为7位,寄存器数据为9位,而I2C总线以字节为单位传送数据。因此在对AIC23的寄存器编程时,第一个字节包括了前7位的寄存器地址B15-B9以及设置DSP 数据的最高位B8,第二个字节为设置数据的后8位B7-B0。





  图2 I2C时序

3.2 音频数据采集与播放

  初始化AIC23后,再初始化DSP以及McBSP0,之后进行音频数据的采集与播放。通过麦克风采集语音信号,经过DSP 数字滤波处理后由耳机输出。使用McBSP0的接收中断保存数据,通过FIR数字滤波子程序处理DSP 音频数据。程序流程如图3所示。




  图3 音频数据处理程序流程图

  初始化McBSP0使其与AIC23协调工作,这里要根据硬件设计和软件要求来配置McBSP0的各个控制寄存器。本系统中串口DSP 的主要设置为:接收数据右对齐,带符号扩展;接收中断使能;由片外提供发送、接收帧信号和发送、接收时钟信号;发送、接收帧同步信号低电平有效;在时钟上DSP 升沿采样发送、接收数



据;每帧发送、接收两个16位字数据。

  数据接收部分可在DSP中断程序中用如下语句实现:

  mvkd drr10,*ar5 ;保存数据

  pshd *ar5+% ;数据压入堆栈

  popd new_ad ;从堆栈弹出数据到自定义的寄存器

  FIR滤波的相关程序如下:

  ld new_ad,a ;新数据加载至累加器

  stm #1,ar0 ;双操作数增量

  stm #N,bk ;设置循环缓冲区长度,即FIR滤波级数(N为滤波级数)

  stl a,*ar3+% ;新数据送至ar3指向的缓冲区

  rptz a,#(N-1) ;重复执行N-1级的乘加运算

  mac *ar2+0%,*ar3+0%,a ;ar2为系数指针,结果在累加器高位中

sth a,temp ;保存计算结果


  ld temp,a ;结果放入累加器低位

  … …

  stlm a,dxr10 ;将累加器地位中的数据送至串口发送寄存器



  … …

  基于前述对AIC23和DSP的相应设置,采用21级系数对称FIR数字滤波,对经由麦克风输入的语音信号进行滤波处理,滤波结果由耳机输出,实际效果良好。所采集DSP 到的音频数据还可通过HPI接口传送至ARM供应用程序调用。

3.3 语音识别应用测试

  语音DSP 识别的基本原理是对语音信号进行特征提取。目前常用的语音识别算法有基于模式匹配的动态时间规正法(DTW: Dynamic Time Warping)、基于统计模型DSP 的隐马尔柯夫模型法(HMM: Hidden Markov Model)以及基于神经网络的识别法(DNN、NPN、TDNN)等[7]。为便于DSP 系统应用测试,本文采用一种最简易的方法对系统进行调试,即对英文元音的识别。基本原理是提取元音字母的频率特征,各元音在其频域响应中都有DSP 三个明显的共振峰频率,而最容易识别的是第一共振峰,由此可进行有效的元音识别。在提取第一共振峰频率DSP 特征时采用“零交越”法(统计单帧信号波形穿越零点的次数——过零率),将信号频率特征的分析转换为时域分析,计算得到的过零率与理论值进行比较即可实现DSP 元音的识别。图4所示分别为元音“A”的时域和频域图。


  图4 元音A的时域图 和频域图

  由频域采样图可以看到DSP 很明显的第一共振峰,此时计算时域采样中信号的过零率可较为准确的识别元音A,过零率的计算中近似等于零的DSP 采样点通常是微弱的干扰,可以忽略不计。经验证,这种简易单元音识别法的识别率在80%以上,由此证明本系统音频处理DSP 实用性。

4 结束语

  本文阐述了基于信号处理和DSP 嵌入式应用的音频处理系统的设计和实现。论述了系统的硬件设计、软件编程及其应用。通过ARM对音频芯片AIC23的控制和DSP与AIC23的通信,实现了音频信号采集、处理、输出的功能以及简单的DSP 语音识别。构建了基于ARMDSP音频处理系统应用框架,对进一步的数据处理、控制应用等提供了切实可行的DSP 软硬件方案。
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